Bolt Patterns & Lug Sizes 101
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Contents of this Guide
Click a topic from the list below to skip ahead to a particular section.
- Bolt Patterns
- Lug Nut Types
- Lug Nut Sizes
- Common Bolt Patterns & Lug Sizes
- Wheel Installation Kits
Bolt pattern (a.k.a. bolt circle) is composed of 2 measurements: number of lugs and "Pitch Circle Diameter" (PCD). PCD is the diameter of an imaginary circle formed by the center point of each wheel lug. The first number indicates the number of lugs. The second indicates the diameter of the circle. It is important to note that the diameter may either be indicated in millimeters (metric) or inches (imperial).
You will often hear people referencing bolt pattern as [# of lugs] "on" or "by" [PCD].
For example, 6x139.7 would be read as "6 by 139.7" or "6 on 139.7." This would indicate that the wheel has 6 lugs and the PCD is 139.7mm (metric). This bolt pattern could also be listed as 6x5.5in (imperial).
Note that the PCD measurement for wheels with an even number of lugs is simple: measure from the center of any lug to the center of the opposing lug. For odd numbered lugs, PCD is a bit more complicated. For example, to measure PCD for a 5 lug wheel, measure from the center of one lug to the outer edge of the an opposing lug. This measurement is actually equivalent to the diameter of the imaginary circle passing through the center of all lugs - its just simpler to calculate.
Lug Nut Types
Spline Drive Lug Nuts
Selecting the correct lug nut is critical to properly seating and securing your wheel to its hub. For aftermarket wheels, you will need a spline drive lug nut. Spline drive lug nuts have 2 major features making them the preference for aftermarket wheels.
1. Conical Seat: Conical (a.k.a. "acorn" or "tapered") lug nuts have a tapered base (as opposed to flat seat, mag seat or spherical/ball seat lug nuts). The 60-degree taper of conical lugs assists in properly centering the wheel on the hub as it is tightened.
2. Grooves: The spline grooves of this lug nut require a special tool or "key" to tighten or loosen. This helps secure your expensive new wheels from theft.
Open or Closed Lug Nuts
Spline drive lug nuts typically come in 3 styles and finishes: open silver, closed silver and closed black.
Open lug nuts are only required when the center cap of the wheel does not properly fit over/around a closed lug nut. Closed lug nuts are typically covered by the center cap, thus the they are only available in one finish. When using a closed lug nut, select the finish that most closely matches the finish of your wheels.
Extended Threat (ET)
ET lug nuts are required when the length of the vehicle's wheel studs is not sufficient for proper thread engagement (i.e. the lug nut does not get enough "turns" when properly torqued. As the name implies, ET lug nuts have a small shank that extends beyond the tampered edge of the lug nut, giving it extra threads to needed properly secure the wheel.
ET lug nuts were commonly seen in vehicles manufactured in the 1970s and before. Now they are most commonly associated with very select makes/models such as Toyotas (4Runners, Tacomas, Tundras).
As a general rule, the thread engagement must be equal to at least the diameter of the stud. So, a1/2-20 stud would need 1/2 in. engagement, or 10 full turns. Use the chart below as a reference for the number of turns required for the most common stud sizes.
|Stud Size||Minimum # Turns|
Lug Nut Sizes
Lug sizes are indicated by 2 different numbers: diameter and thread pitch.
As expected, these numbers can either be metric or imperial. Metric thread pitch indicates the distance (in millimeters) between each thread. So a lug nut size of M14x2.0 indicates that the diameter of the stud is 14 mm and the distance between each thread is 2 mm.
Imperial thread pitches indicate the number of threads per inch. So a lug nut size of 1/2-20 indicates that the stud is 1/2 inch in diameter and there are 20 threads per inch.
Common Bolt Patterns & Lug Sizes
IMPORTANT: Always reference the bolt pattern for your exact year/make/model. Never assume that the bolt pattern for a similar YMM will match your YMM. Bolt patterns and lug sizes can and do change! For example, the bolt pattern for a 2022 F-350 SRW is 8x170 mm. But the bolt pattern for a 2022 F-350 DRW (dually) is 8x200 mm. In 2022, Tundras completely changed bolt patterns from 5x150 in to 6x139.7 mm (6x5.5 in). The lug size also changed from M14 x 1.5 ET to the more common M14 x 1.5. Always verify your vehicles exact bolt patten and lug size - making assumptions can lead to costly mistakes.
Use the chart below as a general reference for common bolt patterns and lug sizes. Your dealership will have the most accurate information regarding bolt patterns and lug sizes. Another great reference is Wheel-Size.com.
|Ford Bronco Sport||21-22||5x108||5x4.25||M12x1.5|
|Jeep Wrangler JK||07-18||5x127||5x5.5||1/2x20|
|Jeep Wrangler JL/JT||18-22||5x127||5x5.5||M14x1.5|
(some JL submodels 1/2-20)
|RAM 1500 (Classic)||12-22||5x139.7||5x5.5||M14x1.5|
|RAM 1500 (New Body)||19-22||6x139.7||6x5.5||M14x1.5|
|Toyota 4Runner||84-20||6x139.7||6x5.5||M12x1.5 ET|
|Toyota Tacoma||16-22||6x139.7||6x5.5||M12x1.5 ET|
|Toyota Tundra||07-21||5x150||5x5.91||M14x1.5 ET|
Wheel Installation Kits
Once you've determined your correct lug size, our preferred brand of lug nuts and wheel installation kits is Gorilla. For sizes not offered by Gorilla, we also recommend checking out Rough Country.